Orangutan Penghuni Hutan Hujan Tropis

Orangutan atau Mawas adalah salah satu dari tiga spesies kera besar Asia yang ditemukan di hutan hujan Asia Tenggara. Sebarannya meliputi pulau Sumatra dan Borneo. Orang utan Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus) menghuni sebagian besar Kalimantan. Sedangkan orang utan Sumatera (P. abelii) dan orang utan Tapanuli (P. tapanuliensis) terbatas di Sumatera bagian utara. Orangutan memiliki kemampuan kognitif yang sebanding dengan gorila dan simpanse. Simpanse merupakan satu-satunya primata yang lebih dekat dengan manusia.

Klasifikasi

Orang utan diklasifikasikan dalam satu kelompok dengan kera besar Afrika, owa, dan manusia. Semuanya termasuk dalam keluarga Hominidae dari ordo Primata.

Kingdom: Animalia

Kelas: Mamalia

Ordo: Primata

Famili: Hominidae

Genus: Pongo; Lacépède, 1799

Nama ilmiah: Pongo pygmaeus

Sebagian besar ahli membagi orang utan menjadi tiga spesies, dan orang utan Borneo dibagi menjadi tiga subspesies:

  • P. pygmaeus morio,
  • P. pygmaeus pygmaeus, dan
  • P. pygmaeus wurmbii

Selama Pleistocene Epoch (sekitar 2.600.000 hingga 11.700 tahun yang lalu), jangkauan orang utan jauh lebih luas. Sisa-sisa orang utan telah ditemukan di utara Cina bagian selatan.

Sejarah Alam

Mawas tidak begitu kuat seperti gorila tetapi lebih besar dari simpanse. Jantan dewasa biasanya berukuran dua kali ukuran betina. Dapat mencapai ketinggian 1,3 meter (4,3 kaki) dan berat 130 kg (285 pon) di alam liar. Betina memiliki berat 37 kg (82 pon) atau kurang. Jantan yang lebih tua mengembangkan bantalan pipi lebar, merupakan fitur unik di antara primata. Kulit coklat atau kecoklatan yang biasanya gelap ditutupi dengan rambut merah yang relatif kasar dan biasanya jarang.

Beberapa betina dewasa yang lebih tua dan jantan dewasa mungkin memiliki punggung sebagian atau seluruhnya telanjang. Tetapi rambut pada jantan dapat begitu panjang sehingga terlihat seperti jubah ketika dia menggerakkan lengannya.

Diet dan pergerakan Orang Utan

Orang utan adalah hewan arboreal terbesar, menghabiskan lebih dari 90 persen waktu hidup mereka di pepohonan. Pada siang hari sebagian besar waktu mereka dibagi rata antara istirahat dan makan. Satwa yang semakin terancam ini adalah pemakan buah matang. Namun mereka juga mengonsumsi lebih dari 400 jenis makanan, termasuk invertebrata dan, termasuk daging walaupun jarang.

Hampir setiap malam Orangutan membangun platform tidur di pepohonan dengan membengkokkan dan mematahkan dahan, dedaunan, dan ranting. Berbeda dengan kera Afrika, Orangutan sering menggunakan vegetasi untuk melindungi diri dari hujan.

Selain makan dan beristirahat, Orangutan juga menghabiskan waktu singkat bepergian melalui kanopi hutan. Mereka bergerak memanjat dengan menggunakan keempat tangan dan kaki. Orangutan sesekali berayun melalui pepohonan hanya dengan menggunakan lengan (brachiation). Meskipun kaki mereka pendek, lengan mereka secara proporsional adalah yang terpanjang dari kera besar. Tangan seperti pengait memiliki jari-jari panjang dan telapak tangan dengan jempol pendek. Kaki menyerupai tangan dengan jempol kaki besar yang mirip dengan ibu jari.

Adaptasi arboreal lainnya adalah sendi panggul fleksibel yang memungkinkan orangutan melakukan gerakan serupa di kaki dan lengan mereka. Di atas tanah orang utan lambat; seseorang dapat dengan mudah mengikuti mereka. Mereka bukan pejalan kaki seperti kera Afrika tetapi berjalan dengan tinju tertutup atau telapak tangan diperpanjang.

Reproduksi

Ada dua fase pematangan seksual di antara jantan – dewasa dan remaja. Jantan dewasa lebih besar dan menunjukkan karakteristik seksual sekunder yang mencolok. Karakteristik tersebut terutama bantalan pipi yang datar dan menonjol yang berkembang di sepanjang sisi wajah. Bantalan meningkatkan ukuran kepala dan terkait dengan peningkatan kadar testosteron. Jantan dewasa juga memiliki kantong tenggorokan yang berfungsi sebagai ruang beresonansi untuk “panggilan panjang,”. Teriakan mereka kadang-kadang dapat didengar hingga sejauh 2 km (1,2 mil).

Jantan biasanya bersuara selama satu menit atau lebih; panggilan terlama yang pernah terekam mencapai lima menit. Betina hampir tidak pernah mengeluarkan panggilan panjang. Kalau tidak, mereka biasanya diam. Jantan remaja tidak memiliki bantalan pipi lebar dan kantong tenggorokan besar, dan mereka umumnya tidak lama memanggil. Meskipun lebih kecil dari jantan dewasa, remaja masih sama besar atau lebih besar dari betina dewasa. Orang utan remaja dapat tetap hidup selama 10 hingga 20 tahun.

orang utan spesies terancam
Bayi Orang Utan

Perilaku Seksual

Orang utan hidup dalam organisasi semisoliter sosial yang unik di antara monyet dan kera. Kepadatan populasi biasanya rata-rata hanya dua hingga tiga individu per kilometer persegi (sekitar lima hingga tujuh per mil persegi). Jantan dewasa memiliki rentang rumah yang lebih besar daripada betina. Jantan dewasa adalah yang paling soliter, menghindari satu sama lain dan hanya berhubungan dengan betina pendamping atau mantan permaisuri.

Remaja jantan berasosiasi terutama dengan betina. Betina dewasa hidup dengan anak-anak mereka yang masih muda, tetapi para remaja betina suka berteman. Betina yang reseptif secara seksual mungkin menarik beberapa jantan, baik yang dewasa maupun remaja.

Jantan, khususnya dewasa, berperilaku agresif terhadap jantan lain, dengan pertarungan yang terjadi di hadapan betina reseptif. Kebanyakan kawin terjadi dalam hubungan yang berlangsung 3 hingga 10 hari dan berkorelasi dengan ovulasi. Jantan remaja sering secara paksa bersanggama dengan betina pada waktu lain selain selama ovulasi.

Betina memiliki interval reproduksi terlama dari mamalia manapun, melahirkan rata-rata setiap delapan tahun sekali. Betina liar umumnya pertama kali melahirkan ketika mereka berusia 15 atau 16 tahun. Tetapi ada juga catatan betina berusia 7 tahun melahirkan di penangkaran. Kehamilan sekitar delapan bulan.

Bayi yang baru lahir beratnya kurang dari 1,5 kg (3,3 pon). Bayi tersebut biasanya memiliki bercak putih menonjol di sekitar mata dan mulut mereka serta tersebar di tubuh mereka. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan yang lambat konsisten dengan rentang hidup panjang orang utan — 60 tahun tercatat di penangkaran.

Tingkah laku

Orang utan umumnya tenang dan berhati-hati, dan dalam penangkaran mereka menunjukkan kecerdasan dan ketekunan yang besar. Mungkin yang paling menarik dari satwa ini adalah kemampuan mereka memanipulasi benda-benda mekanik. Mereka telah menunjukkan kemampuan kognitif seperti sebab akibat dan penalaran logis. Selain itu juga pengenalan diri di cermin, penipuan, komunikasi simbolis, tinjauan ke masa depan, dan produksi dan penggunaan alat.

Di alam liar, orang utan menggunakan alat, tetapi hanya di satu lokasi di Sumatra mereka secara konsisten membuat dan menggunakannya untuk mencari makan. Dalam konteks ini, mereka membuat defoliasi stik dengan ukuran yang sesuai untuk mengekstrak serangga atau madu dari lubang pohon dan untuk mengorek biji buah keras.

Status konservasi

IUCN telah mengklasifikasikan orangutan Borneo dan Sumatra sebagai spesies yang sangat terancam punah. Meskipun IUCN belum mengevaluasi orang utan Tapanuli (yang dijelaskan pada tahun 2017), laporan awal menunjukkan bahwa populasinya kurang dari 800 individu.

Orang utan Kalimantan, populasinya diperkirakan lebih dari 200.000 pada awal tahun 1970. Diperkirakan populasinya telah menurun lebih dari 50 persen sejak itu karena hilangnya habitat dan perburuan. Perkiraan populasi untuk orangutan sumatera bervariasi dari 6.600 hingga lebih dari 14.000 orang utan.

Akhirnya ancaman utama untuk spesies adalah hilangnya habitat (karena perambahan berkelanjutan dari pertanian dan penebangan) dan perburuan. Sebagai hasilnya, meskipun populasinya relatif besar banyak ahli ekologi berpendapat bahwa hilangnya habitat dan ancaman lain menghadapkan orang utan liar dalam bahaya kepunahan di masa depan.

Berbagi berarti peduli!

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